Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Difficulty paying attention, nonstop talking and having trouble staying still are all indicators of ADHD, so what is ADHD. ADHD stands for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and it’s a common mental disorder that most commonly starts during childhood and can continue into teenage years and adulthood. With ADHD there are major problems with executive functions leading to difficulty in maintaining attention, being hyperactive and becoming very impulsive. ADHD can often make it difficult for a child to flourish in school this is because the child may find it very hard to focus on a task that they find boring, however if they are interested then they can easily maintain focus. It can also cause behavioural problems in the child.
The symptoms must persist for longer than 6 months for a diagnosis to be made. It is important to note that this must be gauged according to the age of the child and their surroundings as a majority of children are easily distracted and can be very boisterous, and as a result parents often incorrectly complain their child is hyperactive. ADHD is thought to affect about 1-5% of children with boys being three times as likely to have the condition than girls. despite it being the most commonly studied mental disorder in children, very little is known about what causes it.
But there are three factors that have been related to its occurrence these are heredity, children whose parents have ADHD are more likely to have the disorder. having a Neurobiological disorder increases the chances of developing ADHD, it is largely believed that an impairment in the Brains neurotransmitter systems in particular Dopamine and Noradrenalin are associated with development of ADHD. Environmental factors may also contribute to developing the disorder. the general symptoms of ADHD are Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity other symptoms tend to fall into one of these categories for example forgetfulness, anger management issues, mood swings, procrastination and an increased risk of addiction. People may have a problem with inattentiveness but not be impulsive or hyperactive this condition is known as Attention deficit disorder or ADD and Is a sub type of ADHD
There is no cure for Attention hyperactivity disorder, but there are treatments that can be used to help people with the disorders, this is often a combination of behavioural therapy and medication The first line treatment in children with mild to a moderately severe form of the disorder is the use of behavioural therapies this involves encouraging the child to do certain behaviours such as completing homework, and the child is rewarded for good behaviour and can have certain privileges removed for bad behaviour. Cognitive behavioural therapy can also be used as well as Psychoeducation.

Medications can also be used, there are four types that are used these are Methyphenidate, Dexamfetamine, Lisdexamfetamine, Atomoxetine, these medications aim to allow the patient to feel less impulsive and to feel calm to allow them to concentrate.
Methyphenidate, Dexamfetamine and Lisdexamfetamine work in a similar way, in that they are stimulants and work by increasing brain activity, particularly in areas responsible for attention and behaviour.
Atomoxetine works differently, it is a selective noradrenaline uptake inhibitor (SNRI), meaning it increases the levels of noradrenalin in the brain. Leading to improved concentration

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD):


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